Lecture Room 1
E-democracy & Elections
10:50 – Democracy Under Threat: Post-Truth Politics and the Authoritarian Tendency in the Philippines (71377)
The term post-truth politics has gained traction, especially amidst the contemporary resurgence of authoritarian-populist regimes. Today, political landscape where boundaries between fact and fiction have been blurred extends reach to regions of the Global South, like the Philippines. In this paper, we examine how post-truth characterizes today’s Philippine political landscape. We will further investigate the basis behind the emergence of a post-truth political landscape by elaborating on the institutional, technological, and social bases behind its emergence and sustenance in the Philippines. This paper contends that post-truth politics (or any politics for this matter) does not arbitrarily arise out from a social vacuum but from social arrangements that, wittingly or unwittingly, aid in its development. To do this, we review some important literature on post-truth on the one hand and Philippine politics and elections on the other. The aim is to present the challenges of today’s post-truth political landscape to the country’s democracy and provide recommendations for policy making.
11:15 – Malay Politics and Social Media During the 15th General Election in Malaysia (72054)
The proliferation of social media has ramifications for Malaysia as it is a conduit for alternative information and democratic values. The Internet increases transparency by helping people to avoid censorship, thus facilitating the flow of information about the government and people. During 15th general election (GE15) in 2022, social media was an important instrument in promoting democracy by opening up more space for Malaysians to deliberate on political issues. While political parties had more freedom to campaign during the election, Malay political parties such as UMNO, PAS, and BERSATU, plus Amanah, PKR and Pejuang also had the same opportunity to project themselves as champions of core issues such as Malay rights and unity. Therefore, this paper will trace the impact of social media during GE15, and examine the utilization of social media by political parties to win votes using issues of Malay unity and rights and triggered the ‘Green Wave’.
11:40 – Understanding the Role of Indonesian Millenials in Digital Politics Participation Towards Simultaneous Election in 2024 (72088)
Indonesian Millenials are the largest age-group as Indonesia is experiencing a demographic dividend, where the size of the young productive age population is the largest until 2030. Millennials and Gen-Zers hold about 54 percent of the population of 270 million people, according to official statistics. Meanwhile, the Association of Indonesian Internet Service Providers (2022) also stated that 77% of Indonesian citizens or as many as 210 million people have used the internet. With large numbers and high level of technological literacy, Indonesian millennials hold much responsibility for better results in upcoming election. Using qualitative approach and library research, researcher will categorize data based on autonomous participation and mobilize participation in Indonesia. This article will provide what’s role from Indonesian Millenials especially in terms of political participation, not only about voting rights but also conduct the flow in how to express their opinion or political preference. Which more or less can impact voting behaviour and influencing the direction of the country in various spheres.
12:05 – Indonesian Democratic Consolidation and the Challenges of Digitalized Electoral Democracy (71872)
Indonesia stands out globally as a Muslim country that has established multiparty democracy. Indonesia’s markers as Islamic, democratic, and industrializing are happening in a rapidly transforming digital space that provides myriad of opportunities and challenges to democracy globally. Notably, the digital age poses issues of authenticity and labelling. There are issues of storing and managing voting data and ensuring trust as actual threats and cynical accusations of data manipulation, technical errors, and cyberattacks increase. Even more, the internet, especially social media, has been characterized by ideological and political activism that often dovetail with extremism. As Indonesia seeks to consolidate democracy, how can it adapt to digitalized democracy? What can Indonesia learn from consolidated democracies struggling to make digitalized democracy work? Can digitalization impede democratic consolidation in Indonesia? The paper takes a critical comparative approach as it draws lessons from the USA and gauges the progress toward democratic consolidation in Indonesia.
Lecture Room 2
Civil Society & Social Issues 1
10:50 – Legal traditions, Domestic Institution and International Cooperation (72110)
This paper claims two things. First, a state’s legal tradition is transcended into its domestic institution in each issue area, though it is also influenced by non-legal traditions and factors. Second, a state that has common/civil law type domestic regime (not necessarily a state that has common/civil law traditions) prefers a common/civil law type international agreement or institution. By analyzing the three issues areas (trade in goods, services and investment) covered by free trade agreements, this paper demonstrates that different modes of governance are preferred by civil and common law states domestically and internationally. The difference in legal traditions is a potential factor that would induce economic dis-integration.
11:15 – Dealing with Dilemma: Thailand’s Policies Toward International Labor Migration (72107)
This paper focuses on the role of the Thai government since the Foreign Employment Act of 1978, should be explored to explain the Thai government’s decision-making on this issue during a period of political instability and global economic change. The main question focuses on how policy decisions regarding Thailand’s international labor migration are made and how policies are shaped through domestic and international policy action. Using datasets of policy papers, secondary literature, and in-depth interviews with related stakeholders in government agencies.
11:40 – Political Culture, Electoral Rules, and Patronage Politics in Korea (71848)
The purpose of this paper is to trace the causes of patronage politics in Korea. While the study of clientelism or patronage perspective in modern political science focuses on the relationship between political parties (or politicians) and voters, Korea's patronage politics can be characterized by a dyadic resource exchange relationship between political elite and surrounding politicians. While Korean political culture originated from the Confucianism plays as a factor in naturally accepting inequality between patron and client, on the other hand, it has been a influential factor strengthening the so-called political regionalism. Along with these cultural factors, the two major parties that have strong foothold in a specific region maintain patronage politics through electoral rules that facilitate securing regional support. In sum, it is revealed that Korean patronage politics has been maintained by the geographically divided political structure and political culture derived from Confucianism and has bee reinforced by electoral rules.
Political Dynasties and Democratization
Lecture Room 1
Lecture Room 2
ASEAN Varieties of Liberalism and Democracy
Lecture Room 1
15:40 – Water Control and Management of Indus Basin Region from Colonial Period to Independent India and Pakistan (72109)
The Indus basin has one of the most elaborated irrigation system on earth, in the semi-arid region spanning across Pakistan and India. It is critical to large fertile and arable lands of the region, making agricultural production a significant part of the economy. Along with it, the social and political structure built around water provides the states of India and Pakistan with an instrument to control territory and population of the region. This paper analysis the integration of water infrastructure with bureaucratic administration and social structure of the region. It focuses on formation of such structure from colonial period, when development of irrigation agricultural was started to increase revenue and administrative control over the region, to the partition of the region when infrastructure of the basin is determined by the national interest of India and Pakistan.
15:15 – Quantitative analysis of ICWC Bulletins on the Aral Sea (72062)
This study quantifies the differences in diplomatic positions and economic concerns on problems of the Aral Sea and water resources among five central asian countries by analysing ICWC Bulletins from 1996 to 2022 with text-mining techniques such as Correspondence analysis and Co-occurrence networks
This study categorises presidential speeches and joint statements in Bulletins into 'countries with water sources' or 'countries without water sources' and also classifies them by a partner country. These classifications allow analysing the impact of "water sources of Aral Sea within their territories" and the effect of 'which country is a partner when issuing a joint statement.'
The results of the analysis possibly suggest that 'countries with water sources' are willing to use the water sources for energy production and 'countries without water sources' intend to prevent 'countries with water sources' from using water sources without consideration by emphasising bilateral cooperations or problems of the Aral Sea.
16:05 – Decline of Democracy – Do Indonesia and the Philippines follow the Global Trends and Patterns? (71858)
There is an academic consensus that the number of democracies worldwide has decreased in the last decade, while at the same time the number of countries in the “grey zone” between the two contrasting regime types (democracy/authoritarianism) has increased. In this paper, I would like to argue that Southeast Asia is no exception to the before-mentioned phenomenon. Particularly, two of the traditionally most democratic countries in the region, Indonesia and the Philippines, have witnessed a significant decline of political rights and civil liberties in recent years. Based on data and methodology from the upcoming Bertelsmann-Transformation Index 2024 (https://bti-project.org/en/), the author will highlight several features of democratic decline in both countries and analyze similarities and differences. In addition, the author will compare the political developments in both countries with global trends and patterns of regime transformation.
Lecture Room 2
Civil Society and the Social Construction of Peace and Conflict
15:15 – Unveiling the Local-Turn in Peacebuilding: Exploring the Roles and Contributions of Bangsamoro Civil Society Organization in Mindanao Peacebuilding for the Common Good (71854)
This research addressed the role of Bangsamoro civil society organizations (BMCSOs) and the conditions that allow their participation in Philippine peacebuilding efforts. Using an institutional approach, the researcher collected qualitative data from BMCSO members and other peace actors. Findings reveal that local CSOs contribute to effective and long-term peacebuilding with their knowledge of the conflict context. BMCSOs effectively perform advocacy, socialization, and social cohesion, particularly in steering stakeholders' reactions toward constructive participation, raising awareness of the causes and costs of conflict, and facilitating dialogue. Institutionalizing venues for CSO participation and funding availability promotes robust engagement of BMCSOs in the Bangsamoro region. However, the study also identified challenges such as external co-optation, reliance on external support, and influence of local political agenda. The results emphasized the importance of empowering and assisting BMCSOs, particularly youth CSOs, in overcoming these obstacles and establishing a more inclusive and long-term peace in the region. Collaboration with the state, developing self-reliance, and strategic leadership and management skills were critical strategies for BMCSOs.
15:40 – Words that Kill: Examining the Effects of Red Tagging and Violent Speeches on Human Rights and Democracy (71853)
“Jokes” which often allude to violent acts was staple in the speeches of former Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte during his presidential campaign and throughout his administration.
This eventually progressed to red-tagging or accusing individuals or groups as terrorists or rebel sympathizers. In 2020, the Commission on Human Rights voiced its concern over the increasing number of red-tagging reports even in the face of the pandemic and government-mandated lockdown.
The former president also gave a “shoot-to-kill” order for quarantine violators and threatened those who protest his pandemic response. Coincidentally, in the same year, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights released a report on the human rights situation in the Philippines, citing red tagging, among others, as a cause of concern.
This article aims to demonstrate how the former president's "jokes" are not as harmless as claimed and are equivalent to inciting crimes against humanity by comparing precedents in cases decided by various international criminal tribunals with his actions.
16:05 – “Payapa means Panatag Shoal”: A Study on Perceptions of Peace in Masinloc, Zambales (72116)
Understanding the peace and security situation in the Philippines should not be limited to an overview and analysis of formal institutions and structures, but informal institutions, norms and cultures, as well.
Following the framework on the varieties of peace (Olivius and Åkebo, 2021) and context-sensitive approaches of peacebuilding (Kurtenback, 2020), and the possibilities to integrate peacebuilding at different levels (McCandless, Abitbol, and Donais, 2015), the study seeks to capture and present the perceptions the local community, NGOs and the security sector regarding of “peace” in Masinloc, Zambales, and how the current territorial dispute between the Philippines and China impacts their understanding of security and conflict.
The research, done through a series of focused group discussions and key informant interviews, aims to explore and expound on notions of peace among locals, as well as the pillars of peace found in these areas such as physical integrity, human rights, and conflict transformation.
16:30 – Re-thinking Values, Character and Citizenship Education for Civil Society and the Common Good (71851)
When Singapore weathered the challenges of the pandemic two foundational characteristics stood out, utilization of science and activation of social responsibility. Whilst technological and digital advances are re-shaping societies there is a need to understand that values and character feature critically in societal adaptation. This presentation will share on the setting of the Singapore Centre of Character and Citizenship Education and why we need to renew our diligence to nurture virtues for the next generation as individuals, fellow human beings and members of society locally and globally. The presentation will share on how the centre hope to strengthen character, well-being and citizenship education through research and wisdom to inform policy, practice and pedagogy pertaining to character and citizenship development. The session will also discuss how we engage stakeholders and equip educators and key players. We conclude with how good citizenship leads to global citizenship and building a better world.
Weaving Social Fabrics: Legitimacy and Peace Building in Southeast Asia