Conference Archive: APISA 17


APISA2023 | APISA 17th Annual Congress

Towards New Modalities of Governance in Asia: E-democracy, Civil Society, and Human-Centred Policymaking

Key Information

Onsite Presentations: Friday, June 30 to Saturday, July 1, 2023
Venue: Merdeka Tower Business Center (MTBC), Warmadewa College, Bali, Indonesia
Online Presentations: Thursday, June 29, 2023

APISA 2023 was co-hosted by the Institute of Peace and Democracy and Warmadewa University in Bali, in collaboration with the Center of ASEAN Community Studies (CACS) in the Faculty of Social Sciences at Naresuan University, the IAFOR Research Centre at the Osaka School of International Public Policy’s (OSIPP) "Peace and Human Security in Asia: Toward a Meaningful Japan-Korea Partnership", and the Institute for International and Area Studies, Ewha Womans University.

We are grateful for the support provided by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Political Dialogue Asia, the Korea Foundation, and the Ewha Frontier 10-10 Program.

About the Conference

In 2005, US President George W. Bush declared that it was America’s mission to spread democracy to the world. Less than two decades since, the loss of faith in “democracy” as an ideal system of governance, development, and promotion of human rights is now, instead, widespread. As John Dunn argued in 2017, “Democracy by now provokes and expresses wider and more acute conflict than any other in the history of human speech;” it is an essentially contested idea and “not a valid title to the political compliance or allegiance of anyone.” There has been considerable regional pushback against Western liberal universalist claims and prescriptions for governing relations within and between polities. The growing antipathy toward liberal internationalism in promoting global agendas has been compounded by an authoritarian China’s lure for an alternative path to development and prosperity. In an increasingly polarizsing geopolitical landscape, many in Asia are trying to protect basic human security freedoms (freedom from fear, freedom from want, and freedom to live in dignity) from tyranny, but less enthusiasm to partake in the West’s "fight for democracy" narrative for the war in Ukraine.

Similarly, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has previously been heralded as the harbinger of e-democracy worldwide. In recent years, however, the internet and social media have become toxic spaces for spreading fake news, disinformation, and trolling fuelled by hyper-partisan and polarizing political biases. It is imperative to revisit the original intent of e-democracy to restore the potential of digital spaces for fostering a truly inclusive, deliberative, and participatory democracy in the region.

Regardless of conceptual disagreements or unhelpful binaries, at the very least, it is time to acknowledge that the current structure of the international political economy and governance cannot be sustained without some reckoning of past failures and rethinking of what can deliver better governance, both at the nation-state and international levels. The traditional state-centric approach to security that prioritizses the survival of the state does not sufficiently address the contemporary and complex threats to human survival.
Asia is now in the throes of a Westphalian type of inter-state rivalry and arms race, while also combatting vital issues with socio-political implications, such as poverty alleviation, accessibility to education, climate crisis, and internal ethnic and religious conflicts. This dual challenge has put pressure on some governments in Asia to privilege policies of state survival at the expense of good governance and civic freedoms for their people to effectively address human security challenges. There is an urgent need for human-centric policymaking and conceptualization of security and new modalities of governance that reflect and can deliver them.

Keynote Address

H.E. Dr. Kao Kim Hourn, Secretary-General of ASEAN, gave a Keynote Address on ‘Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Multilateralism in an Era of Great Power Contestation’ at the Asian Political and International Studies Association (APISA) Congress 2023 on June 30, 2023 via Video Conference

Conference Outline*

All times are Indonesia Central Time Zone (UTC+8)

Thursday, June 29, 2023Friday, June 30, 2023Saturday, July 1, 2023
All sessions on Thursday were held Online

11:00-11:10: Welcome and Opening Remarks

11:10-12:50: Online Parallel Presentation Session 1
Room A | External Influences on Peace and Development
72106 Baloch Nationalism and Peace Interval, 1977-1988: Analysing the Role of Internal and External Factors
72579 Characterization of the Partnership for Development Between ASEAN and Chile
71865 A Study on Interaction Between Land ASEAN States and China After the Cold War – Centered on the GMS Mechanism

Room B | Societal Peacebuilding and Cooperation
70819 Youth in Bangladesh and Future Opportunities
70595 Cooperation among Environmental Organizations in an Illiberal Regime: The Case of Hong Kong
72404 The Trend of Betonamujinron Research in Japan: Implications for Mutual Cultural Understanding and Policy
71866 Inclusive Shame for Peaceful Coexistence: Historical Reconciliation with Reciprocal Non-domination in Northeast Asia

12:50-13:05: Break

13:05-14:45: Online Parallel Presentation Session 2
Room A | Geopolitics and Security
72950 Analyzing Bangladesh’s Indo-Pacific Outlook
72087 The US-China Rivalry in the Maritime Domain: The Case of South China Sea
72082 German Security and Energy Policy and Its Change in Ukraine War
72049 Securitization and Regional Strategy: The Role of Non-traditional Security in China’s Track 2 Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

Room B | E-democracy
72048 Denunciation in the Xi Jinping Era: An Analysis of State-Society Relationship
72080 “Fake News” Through the Lens of the State: A Thematic Analysis and Illustration of the Non-decision by the Duterte Administration
72068 Consolidating People’s Voices for Participation in National Elections: An Assessment and Bridging of Identified Gaps Through ICT Initiatives
72078 From the Screen to the Ballot Box: Comparative Experiences of Electoral Disinformation on Social Media in Southeast Asia

14:45-15:00: Break

15:00-16:40: Online Parallel Presentation Session 3
Room A | Porous Borders and People
71684 Buoyancy: The Cross-border Online Gambling Linkages Between China and the Philippines
71875 Contesting Humanity: COVID 19 and the Precarity of Rohingya Refugees
72057 Examining the Role of Civil Society Organizations on ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights Agenda-Setting: Projecting a Post-Pandemic Trajectory
72065 Liberal Convergence or Differential Exclusion? Path Dependency in Migration Policy

All sessions on Friday were held onsite at Merdeka Tower Business Center (MTBC), Warmadewa College

08:00-09:15: Registration

09:15-09:45: Welcome and Opening Remarks | Main Hall

09:45-10:35: Keynote Address | Main Hall
Ibu Spica A. Tutuhatunewa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia (online)
Bapak Muhammad Takdir, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia (online)

10:35-10:50: Coffee Break

10:50-12:30: Onsite Parallel Presentation Session 1
Main Hall | Panel: Political Dynasties and Democratization

Room 1 | E-democracy & Elections
71377 Democracy Under Threat: Post-Truth Politics and the Authoritarian Tendency in the Philippines
72054 Malay Politics and Social Media During the 15th General Election in Malaysia
72088 Understanding The Role of Indonesian Millennials in Digital Politics Participation Towards Simultaneous Election in 2024
71872 Indonesian Democratic Consolidation and the Challenges of Digitalized Electoral Democracy

Room 2 | Civil Society & Social Issues 1
72110 Legal traditions, Domestic Institution and International Cooperation
72107 Dealing with Dilemma: Thailand’s Policies Toward International Labor Migration
71848 Political Culture, Electoral Rules, and Patronage Politics in Korea

12:30-13:30: Lunch Break

13:30-15:00: Session 2: Featured Panel Presentation | Main Hall
Panel: ASEAN Varieties of Liberalism and Democracy
Roberto Dominguez, Suffolk University, United States (Chair)
Brendan Howe, Ewha Womans University, South Korea
Haruko Satoh, Osaka University, Japan
Christian Schafferer, Overseas Chinese University, Taiwan
Julio Teehankee, De La Salle University, Philippines

This panel is sponsored by the Rosenberg Institute

15:00-15:15: Coffee Break

15:15-16:55: Onsite Parallel Presentation Session 3
Main Hall | Panel: Weaving Social Fabrics: Legitimacy and Peace Building in Southeast Asia

Room 1 | International Governance
72062 Quantitative analysis of ICWC Bulletins on the Aral Sea
72109 Water Control and Management of Indus Basin Region from Colonial Period to Independent India and Pakistan
71858 Decline of Democracy – Do Indonesia and the Philippines follow the Global Trends and Patterns?

Room 2 | Civil Society and the Social Construction of Peace and Conflict
71854 Unveiling the Local-Turn in Peacebuilding: Exploring the Roles and Contributions of Bangsamoro Civil Society Organization in Mindanao Peacebuilding for the Common Good
71853 Words that Kill: Examining the Effects of Red Tagging and Violent Speeches on Human Rights and Democracy
72116 “Payapa means Panatag Shoal”: A Study on Perceptions of Peace in Masinloc, Zambales
71851 Re-thinking Values, Character and Citizenship Education for Civil Society and the Common Good

18:30-21:00: Conference Dinner | Prime Plaza Hotel Denpasar Room 3F
- 19:00-20:00: Keynote Address
Kao Kim Hourn, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Cambodia
- 20:00-20:30: Award Ceremony

All sessions on Saturday were held onsite at Merdeka Tower Business Center (MTBC), Warmadewa College

08:15-09:00: Registration

09:00-10:40: Onsite Parallel Presentation Session 1
Main Hall | Panel: Business-Government Ties and Politics in Select Philippine Cities

Room 1 | Civil Society & Social Issues 2
71134 Housing Insecurity and Economic Development: A Case Study of Informal Settlements in Manila, Philippines
72111 Sewaka Dharma: The New Public Service Based on Balinese Local Wisdom Toward Good Governance in Denpasar City
72097 The Characteristics of Social Capital Among North Korean Defectors: Focusing on the Survey Data (2017-2021) of North Korean Defectors
71845 Human Security in Korea and Asia

Room 2 | Geopolitics
72075 The New Geopolitics in the Indo-Pacific and India-Australia Relations
72047 Reconsidering Ostpolitik of Russia Foreign Policy and Japan Security Policy after the Emerging of Ukraine War 2022
71873 How to Avoid a Great Power War in the Indo-Pacific
71143 Cybersecurity in Sino-US Relations: Challenges, Cooperation, and Prospects

10:40-11:00: Coffee Break

11:00-12:40: Onsite Parallel Presentation Session 2
Main Hall | Panel: Thailand’s Deep South/Patani: Changing Dimensions of a Continuing Conflict

Room 1 | Women, Gender, and Participation
72060 Women’s Political Participation, Policymaking and Democracy in Indonesia
72102 Paradigm Shift in Gender Equality Development Policy in Thailand: Parity Versus Differences
72053 Women and Violence in Urban Spaces: Modalities, Spaces, Narratives

Room 2 | Security, Threats, and Securitization
71956 How Asian States Justify Suppression: Tracing Causal Flows from Societies’ Homogenizing Self-Perceptions to Securitized Ethno-Religious Minority Identity
72050 South Korea’s Threat Perception of North Korea: A Comprehensive Framework
72115 Enforcing Cyber Security Policy and Strengthening Countermeasures Against Cyber Terrorism in Indonesia
71869 The Reasons for the Resilience of Prayut Chanorcha’s Regime

12:40-13:40: Lunch Break

13:40-14:20: Keynote Address | Main Hall
Ambassador Elizabeth Buensuceso, Eminent Person of the Philippines to the HLTF on the Post-2025 ASEAN Community Vision

14:20-16:00: Onsite Parallel Presentation Session 3
Main Hall | Panel: International Studies in Asia
This panel sponsored by the World International Studies Committee (WISC)

Room 1 | Governance and Human Development
72774 - Legitimation Strategies and Liberal Mimicry in Autocratization: The Case of Cambodia
72093 Addressing the Challenges of Poverty within Human Development Peace Nexus Approach: The Case Study of Karangasem Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia
73199 Sustainable Community Development for Promoting Common Good: A Case Study of Sufficiency Economy Learning Center in Buriram Province, Thailand
72113 Policy Studies on Decent Work: What Should Indonesia Learn?

Room 2 | Sustainability and Resilience in a Glocalized World
72953 The Inconsistency of the Thai Government’s Human Resource Development System and Community Needs: A Case Study of the Reskilling and Upskilling Training Program for Indigenous Fishing Communities in Prachuab Khiri Khan, Thailand
72954 Transforming Thai-Laos Relations: The ASEAN Phenomenon and Border Development in Phayao Province
73117 Between Identity and Peacebuilding: A Case of Women’s Participation in Thailand’s Deep South Peace Process
This panel sponsored by Thailand's Academic Network on Social Development Administration (TANSDA)

16:00-16:45: Closing Session | Main Hall


The Korea Foundation (KF)

The Korea Foundation (KF) was established in 1991 to promote the charms of Korea to the world in order to deepen mutually friendly international civil networks. Since its founding, the KF has worked on various foreign exchange programs including the promotion of Korean studies, networking to foster international cooperation, arts and cultural exchanges, and media projects.

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The Korean International Studies Association (KISA)

The Korea International Studies Association contributes to the development of International Studies in Korea. Founded in 2009 in Seoul, KISA aims to foster an active scholarly network, support ongoing research, and contribute to an intellectually stimulating environment for scholars engaged in English language-based research in International Studies in Korea. Moreover, the Association fills the vacuum of associations or study fora in the field of international studies in Korea, particularly with regard to international scholars and practitioners.


The IAFOR Research Centre (IRC)

The IAFOR Research Centre (IRC) is a thinktank attached to the Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP), a graduate school of Osaka University devoted to international public policy research and education, in collaborative partnership with the International Academic Forum (IAFOR), an interdisciplinary academic conference organiser. It is a hybrid organisation that encourages interdisciplinary research and dialogue on issues of international and regional relevance. Education and capacity building for future leaders and public policy experts are priority at OSIPP, and facilitating cross-border research collaboration and interdisciplinary intellectual discussions are priorities for IAFOR, and the IRC is a place for cross-fertilisation of the two institutions’ objectives. As such, the IRC encourages graduate and postgraduate students to take initiative in designing and running research projects, participate in international conferences, and produce incisive commentaries and analyses on international affairs.


The Japan Foundation

The Japan Foundation is a public institution established by the Japanese government to promote international cultural exchange and mutual understanding between Japan and other countries. The foundation offers a wide range of programs and activities related to Japanese language education, arts and cultural exchange, and Japanese studies abroad. These programs include providing support for Japanese language teachers and learners, sponsoring Japanese cultural events and exhibitions, offering scholarships and grants for researchers and students, and conducting research and publications on Japanese culture and society. The Japan Foundation also operates a network of overseas offices to facilitate its programs and partnerships with organizations and institutions around the world.

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Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (KAS)

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (KAS) is a German political foundation named after Konrad Adenauer, the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. The foundation is committed to promoting democracy, rule of law, and social market economy principles both in Germany and globally. KAS offers various programs, events, and publications in the fields of political education, international cooperation, and development assistance. Its activities include providing political education and training for young people and leaders, promoting civil society and human rights, and supporting research and dialogue on international and domestic political issues. KAS has offices in over 120 countries and cooperates with a wide range of partners, including governments, political parties, and civil society organizations, to promote its mission.

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City University of Hong Kong (CityU)

City University of Hong Kong (CityU) is a public research university located in Hong Kong. Established in 1984, CityU offers a wide range of academic programs across various disciplines, including business, engineering, science, social sciences, and humanities. The university is committed to providing high-quality education and research that contributes to the development of Hong Kong and the wider global community. CityU has a diverse student population and offers numerous opportunities for international exchange and collaboration. The university is also actively involved in research and innovation, with a focus on interdisciplinary and applied research that addresses real-world challenges. Additionally, CityU has strong links with industry and the community, and actively engages in knowledge transfer and technology commercialization.

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The Center of ASEAN Community Studiesn (CACS)

The Center of ASEAN Community Studies (CACS) is a research center based at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia. The center is dedicated to the study of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and its member countries, with a particular focus on the social, economic, and political issues affecting the region. CACS aims to foster greater understanding and cooperation within ASEAN and to promote the region's integration and development. The center conducts research, organizes seminars and conferences, and collaborates with other academic institutions, policymakers, and stakeholders in ASEAN and beyond. Through its activities, CACS seeks to contribute to the development of policies and strategies that enhance ASEAN's role and influence in the global community.

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Philippine Political Science Association (PPSA)

The Philippine Political Science Association (PPSA) is a professional organization that promotes the study and practice of political science in the Philippines. Founded in 1962, PPSA is committed to advancing political science as a discipline and to promoting civic engagement and public service in the country. The association brings together scholars, researchers, students, and practitioners in the field of political science to share their knowledge, expertise, and experiences through conferences, seminars, and publications. PPSA also advocates for policies and initiatives that promote good governance, democracy, and social justice in the Philippines. The association aims to contribute to the development of a vibrant and dynamic political science community in the country and to support the training and education of the next generation of political leaders and public servants.

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EWHA Womans University - Graduate School of International Studies (GSIS)

The EWHA Womans University - Graduate School of International Studies (GSIS) is a graduate school located in Seoul, South Korea, that offers advanced degree programs in international studies. Founded in 1997, the GSIS is committed to providing high-quality education and research opportunities in the field of international relations, with a focus on gender issues and global perspectives. The school offers both master's and doctoral degree programs, and its curriculum covers a broad range of topics, including international politics, economics, law, and development. The GSIS is known for its diverse student body, with students from over 30 countries, and its international partnerships with leading universities and institutions around the world. Through its programs and activities, the GSIS aims to prepare its students for successful careers in a globalized world and to contribute to the advancement of knowledge and understanding in the field of international studies.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is a global academic publisher that specializes in books, journals, and digital resources in the humanities, social sciences, and business. The company was founded in 2000 through the merger of two publishing companies, Macmillan Publishers and St. Martin's Press. Palgrave Macmillan publishes books and journals in a wide range of subject areas, including literature, politics, economics, history, sociology, and law. The company is committed to promoting high-quality scholarship and research, and works closely with authors, editors, and academic institutions around the world. Palgrave Macmillan is known for its rigorous editorial standards and its reputation as a leading publisher in many fields. The company is also a pioneer in digital publishing and has developed innovative tools and platforms that enhance the accessibility and impact of scholarly works.

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Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP)

The Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) is a public research university located in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh. Founded in 1960, RUPP is the oldest and largest university in Cambodia and is recognized as a leading institution of higher education in the country. The university offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs in fields such as business, economics, engineering, social sciences, and humanities. RUPP is committed to providing quality education and research opportunities that contribute to the development of Cambodia and the region. The university also engages in community outreach and social service activities, working closely with local and international partners to promote social and economic development. Through its programs and activities, RUPP aims to prepare its students for successful careers and leadership roles in Cambodia and beyond.

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De La Salle University (DLSU)

TDe La Salle University (DLSU) is a private research university located in Manila, Philippines. Founded in 1911, DLSU is one of the oldest and most respected institutions of higher education in the country, known for its strong academic programs and commitment to social justice and civic engagement. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of fields, including business, engineering, law, social sciences, and humanities. DLSU is also known for its research and innovation initiatives, working closely with government agencies, industry partners, and civil society organizations to address key challenges facing the Philippines and the world. Through its programs and activities, DLSU aims to produce well-rounded graduates who are equipped with the knowledge, skills, and values needed to become leaders and agents of positive change in their communities and in society as a whole.

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Faculty of Social Sciences at Naresuan University

The Faculty of Social Sciences at Naresuan University is a leading academic institution located in Phitsanulok, Thailand. Founded in 1990, the faculty offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of fields, including anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. The faculty is committed to providing high-quality education and research opportunities that contribute to the development of the region and the country. The faculty also engages in community outreach and service activities, working closely with local and international partners to promote social and economic development. Through its programs and activities, the Faculty of Social Sciences at Naresuan University aims to produce graduates who are equipped with the knowledge, skills, and values needed to become leaders and agents of positive change in their communities and in society as a whole.

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EWHA Womans University - Institute for Development and Human Security (IDHS)

The Institute for Development and Human Security (IDHS) at Ewha Womans University is a leading research center located in Seoul, South Korea. Established in 2005, the institute conducts research and analysis on a wide range of issues related to development, human security, and social justice. The IDHS is committed to promoting interdisciplinary research and collaboration, working closely with scholars, policymakers, and practitioners from around the world. The institute's research focuses on a variety of themes, including poverty reduction, gender equality, peacebuilding, and sustainable development. The IDHS also offers training and capacity-building programs for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the region. Through its research and outreach activities, the IDHS aims to contribute to the development of policies and programs that promote human well-being and social justice.


Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem)

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a research project that aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of democracy worldwide. Established in 2014, the project is based at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden and involves a team of over 50 scholars from around the world. V-Dem uses a unique methodology to measure and compare the quality of democracy in different countries, based on a wide range of indicators related to political rights, civil liberties, governance, and political participation. The project also generates data on key dimensions of democracy such as electoral integrity, freedom of expression, and rule of law. The V-Dem dataset is widely used by scholars, policymakers, and civil society organizations to monitor trends in democracy and to inform policy debates on issues such as democracy promotion, governance reform, and human rights. The project is committed to promoting transparency, openness, and collaboration in the field of democracy research, and provides free and open access to its data and methodology.

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Asian International Studies Review (AISR)

The Asian International Studies Review (AISR) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes research articles, review essays, and book reviews on a wide range of topics related to international relations, security, and diplomacy in the Asian region. Established in 1996, AISR is published by the Graduate School of International Studies at Seoul National University in South Korea, and aims to provide a platform for scholars and policymakers to engage in critical dialogue and debate on key issues shaping Asia's role in the world. The journal welcomes contributions from a range of disciplines, including political science, economics, law, history, and sociology. AISR is committed to promoting interdisciplinary research, and encourages submissions that integrate different perspectives and approaches to the study of international relations. Through its publications and events, AISR aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the complex challenges facing the Asia-Pacific region, and to facilitate greater cooperation and dialogue among scholars and policymakers.


Warmadewa University

Warmadewa University is a private university located in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Established in 1984, the university is named after King Warmadewa, a 10th-century Balinese ruler known for his contributions to education and culture. Warmadewa University offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs in fields such as law, economics, management, engineering, and tourism. The university is committed to providing a high-quality education that emphasizes both academic excellence and the development of practical skills and professional competencies. In addition to its academic programs, Warmadewa University is also actively engaged in research and community service activities, with a particular focus on issues related to the environment, culture, and social development. Through its programs and activities, Warmadewa University aims to contribute to the development of a more prosperous, sustainable, and culturally vibrant Bali and Indonesia.

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Institute for Peace and Democracy (IPD)

The Institute for Peace and Democracy (IPD) is a non-profit organization based in Bali, Indonesia, that works to promote peace, democracy, and human rights in Southeast Asia and beyond. Established in 2000, IPD conducts research, organizes training and capacity-building programs, and engages in advocacy and dialogue on a wide range of issues related to peace, democracy, and human rights. The organization focuses on promoting conflict resolution, preventing violent extremism, promoting interfaith dialogue, and strengthening civil society and democratic institutions. IPD works closely with local and regional partners, including governments, civil society organizations, academic institutions, and international organizations, to develop innovative and effective approaches to promoting peace, democracy, and human rights. Through its activities, IPD aims to contribute to a more peaceful, just, and inclusive world.