Constructing Conflict and Peace in Indonesia: A Study Case of Maluku Communal War
Christina Florensya Mandagi, Ewha Woman's University, South Korea
Plurality in Indonesian society has always been challenging, but the nation’s faith in “Unity in Diversity” is always the cornerstone for peace and co-existence. Nevertheless, several of its regions were more conflictual than others. During the democratic transition, the case of Maluku Communal War is an exception due to its portrayal as a peaceful and tolerant region previously. The nation has witnessed over 6,000 casualties and 2.1 million refugees making it the deadliest of any communal war. Despite its severity, it received less attention contrary to similar cases in other regions within the same timeframe. The oversimplification of it as a conflict between Christians and Moslems led to the intervention by the government that resulted in the Malino Accord II, which was considerably rapid in its process. This article seeks to explain the construction of conflict and peace in this case which was not properly considered nor included in every peacemaking effort done previously. Using the perspectives offered by post-positivist approaches of social constructivism, post-structuralism, and critical theory, it argues that the securitization of religious identity is the main contributing factor to the conflict. Moreover, this study suggests that the peacebuilding process should emphasize conflict transformation through education, reinforcement of local norms, frequent interfaith dialogue, and revitalization of customary law to ensure lasting peace in and beyond Maluku.
Presentation Date/Time: Sunday, December 11, 2022 (11:20)
Session: Session 2
Room: Fai Kham Room